The eulogy letter for Mr. Takashi Amano.
Many people has many minds for him.
(It is described Aqua Journal vol. 240 page 22-29)
Mr. Keizo Ishizu
Ex-Editor in Chief of Monthly “Aqua Life”
The birth of “Nature Aquarium”
It was around summer of 1991. Mr. Takashi Amano asked me if we can make a photo book for the planted aquarium photographs taken by him. On a later day, the photographs were brought to the office and I was very surprised to see them. They were huge amount of images capturing the fine details of perfectly planted aquariums that were unlike anything I had ever seen before.
In those days, the “Dutch Style” covering the entire aquarium with aquatic plants was the mainstream. The photographs Mr. Amano brought were totally different from this approach and he presented his own layouts by the concept of “Nature Aquarium”. The origin of Mr. Amano, who spent his childhood in rich nature and was blessed by such an environment, could be found in his photographs.
Mr. Amano’s uncompromising attitude towards photography also extended to the bookmaking. He had already engaged a leading designer for the book design before he came to me. The original size Mr. Amano intended was a half size of a newspaper which could not be accepted by any publisher. We had finally agreed on the book size only after several rounds of negotiations.
The A4-wide size deluxe-edition of photo book having 192 pages had finally been published in April 1992, one year after Mr. Amano first visited me. The front cover designed with computer-processed photographs of a planted aquarium and the globe perfectly matched the title “Nature Aquarium World – Glass no Naka no Daishizen”.
It would not be an exaggeration to say that the debut of this photo book led to the establishment of the genre “Planted Aquarium” in Japanese aquarium scene.
After the publishing of the photo book, Mr. Amano made great achievements while being committed to deliver various information to the world as we all know… But these are only a part of his memory. The latest issue of the monthly Aqua Life contains an article about Mr. Amano with a little more details.
May his soul rest in peace.
Mr. Takuji Ichikawa
I first met Mr. Amano when I asked him to produce the aquarium shop for the movie of my novel “Sonotoki wa Kare ni Yoroshiku”.
Since then, I have been sending a complimentary copy of my novel every time my new book is published. In response, Mr. Amano always gave courteous and pleasant feedbacks despite his amazingly busy schedule. His deep insight and words of empathy encouraged me a lot at all times.
While I was writing my latest novel that has just been completed, I always thought of Mr. Amano, expecting his empathy. So I wrote to him as soon as I completed the work. It was just a few weeks ago. In his last letter to me, Mr. Amano wrote that he hoped many people would read my story filled with warm kindness in order to change the current deplorable global situations.
There are countless stories Mr. Amano has left. If we develop greater awareness for nature, we can change and the world will change. The way shown by Mr. Amano is still there in front of us.
Mr. Hajime Ozaki
Representative of Penguin Village Co., Ltd.
Mr. Amano, you have gone like a wind. I heard about your illness, but I never expected that you would go so fast. I stood still, looking at your name on the bulletin board notice informing your death. You were my best friend who shared the same view for the past 33 years. I managed to carry on because I had support from ADA. Now I am feeling empty as if a significant portion has dropped off from my body.
We were like brothers – the eldest brother is Mr. Yamasaki, the second is Mr. Yamada, the third is me and the youngest is Mr. Amano who is physically the largest among us.
You gave me seven pieces of stone, saying “I don’t have much things to give you, but just take them” (when I stayed in Mr. Amano’s shop for two days some 26 years ago).
You were sitting alone in the café on the second floor of Penguin Village for two hours (at the opening of Penguin Village).
You invited me to go to Amazon together (before your first trip to Amazon).
You organized a special seminar on the second floor of Penguin Village when the shop was facing difficulties (April 2000).
I brought a fancy gift, Cordon Bleu Cognac, for your first photo exhibition in Yurakucho, Tokyo.
You were standing with your beautiful wife in Kimono, saying the only thing he could do was just watching over her (in Niigata).
And many many more memories…
Mr. Amano, you have departed, with rich remembrances, to a high clear sky of Niigata. My sincere prayers for your soul to rest in peace.
Mr. Hiroya Kawanabe
Professor of Ecology, Emeritus, Kyoto University and Curator Emeritus of the Lake Biwa Museum
I was very surprised to hear the news that Mr. Takashi Amano had passed away at such an early age.
I think it was 1971 when I first met him. At that time, I was invited to Niigata University as a lecturer for the intensive course and one of their librarians took care of me. Her husband was Mr. Yoshisuke Nagashima who taught biology and he introduced me to Mr. Amano as one of his best pupils.
In 1982, I saw Mr. Amano’s ‘aquarium’ for the first time. Since then, I went to Maki-Machi every time I visited Niigata University and saw the conditions of his aquatic plants. Initially, I felt that the plants in the tank were so wild that it is unlikely to be discovered in nature. That is why I was so impressed to observe the aquariums gradually turned into a model of nature. Through this interaction, I wrote the preface to Mr. Amano’s “Glass no Naka no Daishizen”.
Later, Mr. Amano also became an outstanding photographer and I always enjoyed his photographs in Tokyo and Niigata. In 2009, he set up the International Environment Photographers Association and it was my great pleasure to become one of the supporters of this organization by invitation from Mr. Amano.
In spring 2015, Mr. Amano created a massive Nature Aquarium in Oceanário de Lisboa where I have visited a few times. I watched the behind the scenes DVD and I renewed my confidence that Mr. Amano’s “fondness for creatures in nature”, which was cultured in his school days, is one of the sources of his great works.
We know that it is extremely hard to reach an expert level for even one thing; but Mr. Amano accomplished this in multiple fields. I expected that he would go even further and do a lot more things. That is why I am extremely sad about his death.
My sincere prayers for his soul to rest in peace.
Mr. Keiji Kurosawa
Monthly “Aqua Life”
CEO, MPJ Inc.
I remember that it was 14-15 years ago when I first met Mr. Amano, which was a few years after I had started my current job. Although what I was doing does not even compare with Mr. Amano’s great achievements, I have also been engaged in aquarium fish for as long as 35 years in a wholesaler of aquarium fish in the past and current MPJ Inc. Ever since I was working for an aquarium fish wholesaler, my business partners and customers whom I am close to call me “Kuro-Chan”. During a Japanese aquarium fish fair held about 6-7 years back, Mr. Amano called me “Kuro-Chan” when he came and spoke to me. I was very happy that time as I felt I got a lot closer to him.
Only recently I came to know that Mr. Amano was ill, and I got the sad news all of a sudden. Mr. Amano is only 3 years elder to me and was too young to go. His death was shocking not only for his age, but it was also a big loss to aquarium fish industry which has now lost a great man who had led the industry and spread Nature Aquarium in the world. May his soul rest in peace.
Mr. Yoshisuke Nagashima
Ex-Professor of Niigata Seiryo University
Dear Takashi Amano,
Takashi, why did you die, leaving the old man behind? The life without you is meaningless to me. This morning (on August 10, 2015), I had a dream about you. In the dream, I saw you at the hospital and you said, “Sir, let’s go for drive!” You let me get in a red foreign convertible sports car and drove, as if flying, the paddy field area from Yoroigata towards Mt. Kakuda. At that time, I woke up from the dream. In my house, Campsis grandiflora was in full bloom until a few days back and I saw only a single flower remained this morning. The meaning of this flower is glorious life. I felt this is the right flower to put on your chest, so I offered it at the altar.
One day, you suddenly quit as a professional track cyclist and became a photographer, saying “Sir, I want to take a picture of Asian sheepshead wrasse against a backdrop of sunlight.” After that, you won Grand Prix at Fuji Film Nature Photo Contest. Since then, you took a lot of pictures of global natural environments including the world’s three major tropical rainforests. In Germany, Nature Aquarium was recognized as a kind of philosophy originated from the aesthetic sense of Takashi Amano.
Takashi, thank you for everything you have done for me. Send my warm regards to Rie when you meet her. Good bye.
Mr. Hiroyuki Nakano
Mr. Amano, I liked your creations. Not only that, I really liked you. You had a very charming features and I, as a film director, wanted you to appear in my film as an actor one day. I respect you as the same Amazon lover and also as a person who loves nature and wants to convey appreciation for the Earth.
The works Mr. Amano left, including the overwhelming Nature Aquarium in Lisbon, will remain in this world to display his ambitions, skills and philosophy. And they will be passed on by the planted aquarium hobbyists all over the world and the people sharing the same ambitions. Mr. Amano has created a ‘way’ called “aquascaping”, which is just like tea ceremony and martial arts.
Nature Aquarium which recreates nature within an aquarium would not have been invented and existed without Mr. Takashi Amano. Even after your body is lost, the Amano Spirit will last forever. To me, as the same creator, I would feel fortunate if I can leave something in this world in such a way. There are photographs of various places in the world taken by Mr. Amano using large format cameras which captures clearer views than the naked eyes. Because they are mere photographs, they will remain for more than 100 years.
No matter how much the digital technology advances, digital photos will never beat film photographing. Moreover, nature is a profound subject that cannot be perfectly captured even with extraordinary eyesight. With his sheer guts, Mr. Amano tried very hard to conserve the attractive and enticing global environments no matter how hard it was. He was a great creator who ventured into the Earth by stepping into Sado Island and Amazon several times while carrying heavy equipment.
Honestly, I am deeply sad about his death. I wanted to see what kind of aquascapes filled with Wabi-Sabi Mr. Amano would have created when he turned to 100 years old.
Mr. Amano, thank you very much.
Memory of Takashi Amano
Mr. Minoru Matsuzaka
Amazon Man & Catfish Freak
It’s too early! Why? – I can’t help lamenting the loss of my old friend. I knew him since he started his shop. We went to Amazon together. We also went to drink and we somehow got along really well. I think a mischievous guy from Niigata and a maverick from Toyama shared something in common.
When we went to Amazon, I witnessed Mr. Amano’s strong feelings for nature and enthusiasm for photographing, which are incomparable and far beyond those of mine. Although we pursued different avenues, he was my respected friend and also a good rival since then. The last time I saw Mr. Amano was when we drank together after the interview for Aqua Life. At that time, both of us held the same strong passion.
He left this world before fulfilling his dreams. In my deepest sorrow over losing a man with a bright future, it is my sincere hope that Mr. Amano’s passion and achievements will be passed on.
My heartfelt prayer for the repose of his soul.
Mr. Takashi Murakami
A few days have passed since Mr. Amano of Aqua Design Amano had passed away. When I heard the news, I was quite shocked and now I realize that the shock is growing day by day. I really felt that I had an essential respect for Mr. Amano from the bottom of my heart.
I started growing lotus after I read Mr. Amano’s monthly “Aqua Journal” and catalogues. And this gave me motivation to more religiously – themed paintings, which led to my latest trend. That is why I owe Mr. Amano a debt of gratitude, lurking at the bottom of my heart. I always have a feeling of awe and respect for the founders who started a creative business from zero.
Particularly, the success of artistic business of ADA established by Mr. Amano is an amazing accomplishment as it is not easily understood by public. ADA is the company that develops Nature Aquarium products mainly for aquatic plants and evolves and develops them into an artistic world view. It is easy to imagine that Mr. Amano would have struggled a lot for the process of this development.
I think Mr. Amano did all he could do to spread his own unique art, including product development as well as publishing of monthly magazine, holding workshops on planted aquarium, organizing the International Aquatic Plants Layout Contest and photography expeditions across the globe.
I have visited Mr. Amano’s private residence in Niigata. It was about 15 years ago. At his house, I was overwhelmed and greatly moved by his mega-massive freshwater aquarium which occupied almost a half of the room together with the pond in the garden. Mr. Amano told me confidently about his own views on technology, saying “I am using a waterproof sheet imported from Germany for this pond, but it is not up to my expectation. I will develop a better one someday!” From that day onwards, I was hoping for Mr. Amano to build a concept, design and install an ‘extraordinary’ aquarium one day. But now he is gone and it is no longer a dream that can come true.
I will take over a part of Mr. Amano’s artistic intentions to express the beauty of freshwater plants as art. Then, I want to ask Mr. Amano in heaven about my work. I wonder if I ask him, “How do you think about it, Mr. Amano?”,will he answer me, saying “No, it does not conform to the laws of nature. You should listen to the flow of nature!”
Mr. Takashi Amano, I really thank you for your ultimate artistic intentions shared with us.
May you rest in peace.
Mr. Masao Yamauchi
General Manager Sumida Aquarium
“Learning from wisdom and beauty of nature – It is the learning that we pursue through these aquariums.” This phrase is written on the guide plate for Natural Aquascape Zone, the very first exhibit of Sumida Aquarium consisting of five Nature Aquarium tanks. Straightforwardly expressing the awe and respect for nature, which the visitors always pursue by instinct, this zone greatly changed the Aquarium’s concept of tank exhibition and offered valuable insights to me as an aquarium operator.
I also learned a lot of more important things from Mr. Amano besides the concept of tank exhibition, including how to interact with people, the service for customers, human development for juniors and subordinates, critical conditions of current natural environments, significance of children, having dreams, spending enjoyable time and taking on challenges. Mr. Amano cared for me as a junior and gave a lot of encouragement. I still remember every single word from Mr. Amano’s mouth curiously, naturally resonated in my heart. I really liked Mr. Amano, and I feel deeply sorry for the sad news.
Mr. Amano was my great senior with deep affection.
Mr. Hiroshi Yamada
Director-General, Guppy Co., Ltd.
I knew Mr. Amano for nearly 30 years. His early Nature Aquarium layouts which used Riccia attracted a number of people with shiny bubbles produced by photosynthesis. Now an episode of Mr. Amano came to my mind. About ten years ago, a landslide due to prolonged rain hit Okaya City in Nagano, Japan and our company’s laboratory was buried in mud up to the ceiling. At that time, Mr. Amano suddenly appeared in front of us. I think he heard the news. Despite his busy schedule, Mr. Amano put everything aside and rushed to our company.
What more, Mr. Amano insisted that he would clear the mud with a shovel! This is really an unforgettable memory for me; and I remember he was a man of great energy and personality who was willing to work hard for others. Mr. Amano also had a hidden side – he always cared for elderly people. Mr. Amano, a person of deep humanity, devoted his life in creating Nature Aquarium. The 40m Nature Aquarium in Lisbon, which made Mr. Takashi Amano known to the world, will surely keep passing on his ambitions and aspiration.
I pray for the repose of his soul.
Mr. Amano, see you again someday.
Mr. Mitsuo Yamasaki
Representative of Yamasaki Suisoen Co., Ltd.
Mr. Amano, where are you now? I am wondering if you are whispering to yourself, “Did I come here too early?”, quietly looking at the people feeling surprised, shocked and sad about your death at top of Mt. Korenge in your hometown, holding a ticket to the heaven in your hand.
Yes, you left this world like a dream as soon as you completed the Nature Aquarium which made Oceanário de Lisboa one of the world’s best aquariums. You have gone with your extraordinary capability such as strong ability to act, great concept, pursuit for beauty, expertise in photographing and scientific knowledge. I feel like I am a pitiful old man who lost his son whom he has placed great hopes on.
But I am not only feeling sad. You showed us the significance and methodology of natural conservation as the best way to save mankind. You expressed the skills and methods to do it with vivid beauty and gave pride to all of us in the industry. With strong determination, we will pass the spirit and skills you have left to the next generations. Thank you very much, Mr. Amano. I pray for the repose of your soul.
Mr. Armando Miguel Alves (Brazil)
Executive editor of “Aquamagazine”
It was with great sadness that we received the news of Mr. Amano’s passing. There is no doubt that his loss will be keenly felt by all who knew him and learned from his endless knowledge.
Throughout the years we had the honor of having Mr. Takashi Amano as the most illustrious writer on AquaMagazine, always spreading the love for Nature. He helped us to understand how Nature evolves and finds its equilibrium like an organism that keeps our Planet alive.
With your guidance and inspiration, we are able to evolve as human beings, learning the way of patience, admiration and respect. Brazilian aquascapers flourished from your teachings, mastering their techniques and becoming Nature Aquarium lovers by heart.
Our aquariums have never been so quiet, or fish, in their schools, never so static. The Mythic Hall in Niigata mourns, for its Master and Creator is not present in his physical form.
Mr. Amano’s legacy is alive inside of every planted tank around the World, and his lessons will always be spread through the generations by his followers, that’s a promise.
Mr. Albert Connelly, Jr. (U.S.A)
Publisher of TFH Publications and “Tropical Fish Hobbyist”
The world has lost one of its brightest lights in the passing of Takashi Amano. We at TFH Publications and Tropical Fish Hobbyist Magazine have been privileged to have worked with Mr. Amano since the American publication of his legendary Nature Aquarium World book series back in the 1990s, and it has always been a source of great pride to be a professional associate of his. The loss in Mr. Amano’s passing is immeasurable.
I was honored to have personally met Mr. Amano in New York City back in early 2005, when we agreed to publish his monthly article series in TFH. More than ten years later, as the magazine team put together each issue of the magazine, receiving his next Nature Aquarium article and the wonderful photographs accompanying it was always a highlight of the month. There is an ethereal quality to his work as unique to Mr. Amano as his fingerprints, and his love for nature—and his deep understanding of its law, often brutal beauty—came through with each aquarium layout he made and every photograph he took.
Rest in peace and arigatou, honored associate and dear friend from whom we have learned so much. Though aquarium hobbyists across the world are deeply saddened by your loss, we are infinitely better for having known you.
Ms. Cheryl Rogers (U.S.A)
Senior Editor of “The Aquatic Gardener”
As editor of The Aquatic Gardener, I have had the great pleasure of publishing thirteen years of Takashi Amano’s works. Mr. Amano was the keynote speaker of the Aquatic Gardeners Association’s 2001 Convention. We were thrilled to have the then up-and-coming Amano to speak about Nature Aquarium aquascaping, a relatively new idea at the time. Strangely, none of us had thought of the need for a translator! When this omission was realized, we asked the audience members whether anyone spoke Japanese? We were not hopeful. But a lady raised her hand and we were so lucky to have Tomoko Schum there. A great partnership was formed among the AGA, Tomoko Schum, and Takashi Amano. We have published an article by Mr. Amano, skillfully translated by Ms. Schum, in each issue of The Aquatic Gardener since that time.
As I thumb through the articles, I see how Takashi Amano’s personal style developed over time. It has been interesting and educational to watch the ebb and flow of his aquascaping styles. Takashi Amano was taken from us too soon. He had more to teach, more ideas to explore. We have learned from him, and been inspired by him, and have begun new trends and developed new possibilities. That is a teacher’s dearest hope: that the student will grow beyond the lesson and contribute a unique idea.
Mr. João Falcato (Portugal)
Chief Executive Officer , Oceanário de Lisboa
The special Mr. Amano smile
“Forests Underwater” was probably the most emotional project I have had the privilege to participate in. Suddenly, without expecting it, you are involved in the last masterpiece of a lifetime personal Guru. Nothing can prepare you for that.
There are many words that can describe Mr. Amano – genius, commitment, loyalty, sacrifice, kindness and many others, but after working for two years with him, I have to say that what impressed me most in him, was his smile.
Mr. Amano did not smile very often. When he smiled his face would transform and, in a glimpse, we would feel compassion, friendship, beauty and kindness. His smile was more powerful than all the smiles I had met before.
You always dream of meeting people you admire, people whose lives had an impact, people that made this a better planet to live in. Working with Mr Amano was a privilege, but getting to know him a little was a huge honour and made me understand that the master was bigger than his art.
I am sure this project will stay near to my heart for the rest of my life, with the many challenges and beautiful moments it had, I will always remember our last dinner after the opening.
Mr. Amano was happy – we talked and laughed about many things that had nothing to do with aquaria and he showed his rare genuine smile more often than ever before.
That is the image that will always stay with me – a happy, unique and kind human being, with a rare but genuine smile.
Mr. Heiko Bleher (Germany)
With greatest regret I have received this devastating message, unbelievable still, Amano san passed away, no one can believe. And so early.
We heard it immediately on the 5th here in Central Europe early morning and the message spread around the world in seconds. Alone on my timeline on Facebook, thousands have send their condolences. See under Heiko Bleher in Facebook.
We had several meetings and respected each other highly, if in photography, nature aquariums or promoting this, the most beautiful and education hobby worldwide.
Again our sincere condolences, to his family and also the ADA staff and friends. The only positive is the fact that his work will go on forever – around the globe – people will never forget the pioneer of nature aquarium and continue to worship Amano san always. His Myth will live on. such as the myth of my grandfather, the father of aquarium plants, and that of my mother, who discovered and introduced most of today’s aquarium plants cultivated globally and helping millions to enjoy this fantastic underwater world.
Convey kindly this message on to his family.
Mr. Pavaphon Supanantananont (Thailand)
Editor in Chief of “The Fish Max Magazine”
Works of Mr. Takeshi Amano has always brought me excitement.
Since I have been hooked up with aquarium keeping, he is, to me, the master of all planted tank and that impression hasn’t changed ever since.
His work is not only beautiful and unique, but it’s also has originality. When I learned that he passed away, I want to offer my deepest condolences to his family and colleagues. I want to tell them that this is not only their lost, but the world had also lost the greatest aquascaping artist of all time.
I’m sure that even he’s not around anymore; the greatness of his achievement will always stay in our heart and never cease to inspire. Thank you again for being one of such a wonderful person that I’ve met in my lifetime.
Mr. Philipp Gardemin (Germany)
Editor of “aquaristik”
Editorial team “aquaristik” in Dähne Verlag
We were just sitting in the editorial office and working on our current issue – a report on the water garden in the Oceanário de Lisboa, when we received the news of the death of Takashi Amano. This, the largest-ever aquarium that was created by him, was intended to be the culmination of his work, and not the end.
Our publishing house and, in particular, the editorial issue of the magazine “aquaristik” have had a long-standing friendship and collegial collaboration with Takashi Amano and his company ADA. Since he published the very first photos and reports about his aquarium we have reported on them. Back then, terms like “Nature Aquarium” or “aquascaping” were hardly known. In the course of time, his style was emulated by many at home and abroad, who coined terms for his layout style — puristic on the one hand, and drawing from the abundance of nature in a fascinating way on the other.
Takashi Amano has been an instrumental and lasting influence on the German aquaristic scene and facilitated a development that is today reflected in numerous books by the Dähne publishing company. His way of designing aquarium layouts has set new impulses. His personality and character have inspired people here in Germany and all over the world. We are convinced that this movement will not stop with his death but will continue to go strong, which would certainly be his wish, too. His art of designing attractive aquariums will continue to influence us. His numerous students will continue his work, and we will continue to actively support and promote this movement. We bow down in deep gratitude before this extraordinary man.
Mr. Philippe Chevoleau (France)
Publisher of Animalia éditions Publishing
Editor in Chief of “AQUA mag”
Takashi Amano, The storyteller
What a terrible shock to learn Mr. Takashi Amano passed away on August, the 4th. This feeling was shared to everyone at Animalia éditions Publishing.
With the Nature Aquarium, Takashi Amano created a major body of work without frontiers. Not only it’s spread worldwide, but also it touches everyone. It is not restricted to the sole aquarium hobbyist; everyone who feels touched by Nature will be touched by Mr. Amano’s work.
I only met Mr. Amano once, almost 10 years ago. I was already a great fan of his work. I was impressed not only by his skills, but also by his humility and his passion. What a pleasure to discuss with him on different sides of the aquarium hobby and Nature in general.
There is another thing that impresses me. Probably more than the rest: his ability to create a world and to tell a story inside an aquarium layout. I will always remember the first time I saw a work by Mr. Amano. I felt like I was watching an entire movie in just one aquarium photograph! Takashi Amano was not only the Master of the Aquascaping; he was also a director and a storyteller.
Our thoughts go to everyone at ADA as well as to Mr. Amano’s family.
Mr. Holger Windelov (Denmark)
Founder of Tropica Aquarium Plants A/S
The aquarium hobby has with Mr. Takashi Amanos death, lost one of the most important innovator and trend setter, – specially the aquatic plant lovers.
With the publication in 1992, of the fantastic book ‘Nature Aquarium World’, – ADA Co in Niigata and Amano’s name became famous, not only in europe but in the whole aquaristic world.
When he then in year 2000, introduced ‘The International Aquatic Plants Layout Contest’, the result was a revolution in the aquarium hobby. Now the aquarists had a new trend called “Aqua Scaping”
Specially for me and my company ‘Tropica Aquarium Plants’, it has a big influence in the demand for quality plants. Now the acuarists asked for plants on wood and stones, and all the small plants became very popular and prepared the way for the production of tissue culture plants to be intoduced direct into the aquarium. Thakhashi Amanos influence on aquatic plant growers business, can not be praised enough.
I had the plesure to have Mr. Amano as a kind guest in my nursery and in my privat home. I have been invited to Niigata to visit him and ADA Co. also. He was a kind and generous host. He was the one, who intoduced me to the fantastic Niigata Sake !! I will miss to run across him arround in the world. An interesting and charismatic person is no more.
Takashi Amano is dead, – but his visions and ideas is alive.